Tuberculosis drug discovery and emerging targets.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume: 1323
September 11, 2014
Khisimuzi Mdluli K, Takushi Kaneko T, Anna Upton A

Current tuberculosis (TB) therapies take too long and the regimens are complex and subject to adverse effects and drug-drug interactions with concomitant medications. The emergence of drug-resistant TB strains exacerbates the situation. Drug discovery for TB has resurged in recent years, generating compounds (hits) with varying potential for progression into developable leads. In parallel, advances have been made in understanding TB pathogenesis. It is now possible to apply the lessons learned from recent TB hit generation efforts and newly validated TB drug targets to generate the next wave of TB drug leads. Use of currently underexploited sources of chemical matter and lead-optimization strategies may also improve the efficiency of future TB drug discovery. Novel TB drug regimens with shorter treatment durations must target all subpopulations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis existing in an infection, including those responsible for the protracted TB treatment duration. This review proposes strategies for generating improved hits and leads that could help achieve this goal.