Tissue Distribution of Doxycycline in Animal Models of Tuberculosis.
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Journal:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, Volume: 64, Issue: 5
Doxycycline, an FDA-approved tetracycline, is used in tuberculosis models for the temporal control of mycobacterial gene expression. In these models, animals are infected with recombinant carrying genes of interest under transcriptional control of the doxycycline-responsive TetR- unit. To minimize fluctuations of plasma levels, doxycycline is usually administered in the diet. However, tissue penetration studies to identify the minimum doxycycline content in food achieving complete repression of TetR-controlled genes in tuberculosis (TB)-infected organs and lesions have not been conducted. Here, we first determined the tetracycline concentrations required to achieve silencing of target genes Next, we measured doxycycline concentrations in plasma, major organs, and lung lesions in TB-infected mice and rabbits and compared these values to silencing concentrations measured We found that 2,000 ppm doxycycline supplemented in mouse and rabbit feed is sufficient to reach target concentrations in TB lesions. In rabbit chow, the calcium content had to be reduced 5-fold to minimize chelation of doxycycline and deliver adequate oral bioavailability. Clearance kinetics from major organs and lung lesions revealed that doxycycline levels fall below concentrations that repress promoters within 7 to 14 days after doxycycline is removed from the diet. In summary, we have shown that 2,000 ppm doxycycline supplemented in standard mouse diet and in low-calcium rabbit diet delivers concentrations adequate to achieve full repression of promoters in infected tissues of mice and rabbits.