The heme oxygenase-1 metalloporphyrin inhibitor stannsoporfin enhances the bactericidal activity of a novel regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a murine model.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, Volume: 68, Issue: 2
February 7, 2024
Jennie Ruelas Castillo J, Pranita Neupane P, Styliani Karanika S, Stefanie Krug S, Darla Quijada D, Andrew Garcia A, Samuel Ayeh S, Addis Yilma A, Diego L Costa DL, Alan Sher A, Nader Fotouhi N, Natalya Serbina N, Petros C Karakousis PC

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) (Mtb) poses significant challenges to global tuberculosis (TB) control efforts. Host-directed therapies (HDTs) offer a novel approach to TB treatment by enhancing immune-mediated clearance of Mtb. Prior preclinical studies found that the inhibition of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme involved in heme metabolism, with tin-protoporphyrin IX (SnPP) significantly reduced mouse lung bacillary burden when co-administered with the first-line antitubercular regimen. Here, we evaluated the adjunctive HDT activity of a novel HO-1 inhibitor, stannsoporfin (SnMP), in combination with a novel MDR-TB regimen comprising a next-generation diarylquinoline, TBAJ-876 (S), pretomanid (Pa), and a new oxazolidinone, TBI-223 (O) (collectively, SPaO), in Mtb-infected BALB/c mice. After 4 weeks of treatment, SPaO + SnMP 5mg/kg reduced mean lung bacillary burden by an additional 0.69 log ( = 0.01) relative to SPaO alone. As early as 2 weeks post-treatment initiation, SnMP adjunctive therapy differentially altered the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and CD38, a marker of M1 macrophages. Next, we evaluated the sterilizing potential of SnMP adjunctive therapy in a mouse model of microbiological relapse. After 6 weeks of treatment, SPaO + SnMP 10mg/kg reduced lung bacterial burdens to 0.71 ± 0.23 log colony-forming units (CFUs), a 0.78 log-fold greater decrease in lung CFU compared to SpaO alone ( = 0.005). However, adjunctive SnMP did not reduce microbiological relapse rates after 5 or 6 weeks of treatment. SnMP was well tolerated and did not significantly alter gross or histological lung pathology. SnMP is a promising HDT candidate requiring further study in combination with regimens for drug-resistant TB.

Courtesy of the U.S. National Library of Medicine