Metabolically distinct roles of NAD synthetase and NAD kinase define the essentiality of NAD and NADP in .

mBio, Volume: 14, Issue: 4
August 31, 2023
Ritu Sharma R, Travis E Hartman TE, Tiago Beites T, Jee-Hyun Kim JH, Hyungjin Eoh H, Curtis A Engelhart CA, Linnan Zhu L, Daniel J Wilson DJ, Courtney C Aldrich CC, Sabine Ehrt S, Kyu Young Rhee KY, Dirk Schnappinger D

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated derivative (NADP) are essential cofactors that participate in hundreds of biochemical reactions and have emerged as therapeutic targets in cancer, metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and infections, including tuberculosis. The biological basis for the essentiality of NAD(P) in most settings, however, remains experimentally unexplained. Here, we report that inactivation of the terminal enzyme of NAD synthesis, NAD synthetase (NadE), elicits markedly different metabolic and microbiologic effects than those of the terminal enzyme of NADP biosynthesis, NAD kinase (PpnK), in (). Inactivation of NadE led to parallel reductions of both NAD and NADP pools and viability, while inactivation of PpnK selectively depleted NADP pools but only arrested growth. Inactivation of each enzyme was accompanied by metabolic changes that were specific for the affected enzyme and associated microbiological phenotype. Bacteriostatic levels of NAD depletion caused a compensatory remodeling of NAD-dependent metabolic pathways in the absence of an impact on NADH/NAD ratios, while bactericidal levels of NAD depletion resulted in a disruption of NADH/NAD ratios and inhibition of oxygen respiration. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized physiologic specificity associated with the essentiality of two evolutionarily ubiquitous cofactors. IMPORTANCE The current course for cure of ()-the etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB)-infections is lengthy and requires multiple antibiotics. The development of shorter, simpler treatment regimens is, therefore, critical to the goal of eradicating TB. NadE, an enzyme required for the synthesis of the ubiquitous cofactor NAD, is essential for survival of and regarded as a promising drug target. However, the basis of this essentiality was not clear due to its role in the synthesis of both NAD and NADP. Here, we resolve this ambiguity through a combination of gene silencing and metabolomics. We specifically show that NADP deficiency is bacteriostatic, while NAD deficiency is bactericidal due to its role in ‘s respiratory capacity. These results argue for a prioritization of NAD biosynthesis inhibitors in anti-TB drug development.

Courtesy of the U.S. National Library of Medicine