Integrative Analysis of Human Macrophage Inflammatory Response Related to Virulence.

Frontiers in immunology, Volume: 12
June 28, 2021
Pauline Bade P, Fabrizio Simonetti F, Stephanie Sans S, Patricia Laboudie P, Khadija Kissane K, Nicolas Chappat N, Sophie Lagrange S, Florence Apparailly F, Christine Roubert C, Isabelle Duroux-Richard I

(Mtb), the etiological agent of tuberculosis, kills 1.5 to 1.7 million people every year. Macrophages are Mtb’s main host cells and their inflammatory response is an essential component of the host defense against Mtb. However, Mtb is able to circumvent the macrophages’ defenses by triggering an inappropriate inflammatory response. The ability of Mtb to hinder phagolysosome maturation and acidification, and to escape the phagosome into the cytosol, is closely linked to its virulence. The modulation of the host inflammatory response relies on Mtb virulence factors, but remains poorly studied. Understanding macrophage interactions with Mtb is crucial to develop strategies to control tuberculosis. The present study aims to determine the inflammatory response transcriptome and miRNome of human macrophages infected with the virulent H37Rv Mtb strain, to identify macrophage genetic networks specifically modulated by Mtb virulence. Using human macrophages infected with two different live strains of mycobacteria (live or heat-inactivated Mtb H37Rv and ), we quantified and analyzed 184 inflammatory mRNAs and 765 micro(mi)RNAs. Transcripts and miRNAs differently modulated by H37Rv in comparison with the two other conditions were analyzed using in silico approaches. We identified 30 host inflammatory response genes and 37 miRNAs specific for H37Rv virulence, and highlight evidence suggesting that Mtb intracellular-linked virulence depends on the inhibition of IL-1β-dependent pro-inflammatory response, the repression of apoptosis and the delay of the recruitment and activation of adaptive immune cells. Our findings provide new potential targets for the development of macrophage-based therapeutic strategies against TB.