Characterization of spectinamide 1599 efficacy against different mycobacterial phenotypes.
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Journal:Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland), Volume: 140
Spectinamides are a novel series of spectinomycin analogs being developed for the treatment of tuberculosis. The preclinical lead spectinamide 1599 is an antituberculosis drug that possesses robust in vivo efficacy, good pharmacokinetic properties, and excellent safety profiles in rodents. In individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis, causative agents of tuberculosis, the host immune system is capable of restraining these mycobacteria within granulomatous lesions. The harsh microenvironmental conditions of these granuloma lead to phenotypic transformation of mycobacteria. Phenotypically transformed bacteria display suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest and are frequently associated with drug tolerance. Here we quantified the effect of spectinamide 1599 on log-phase and phenotypically tolerant isoforms of Mycobacterium bovis BCG using various in vitro approaches as a first indicator of spectinamide 1599 activity against various mycobacterial isoforms. We also used the hollow fiber infection model to establish time-kill curves and deployed pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling to characterize the activity differences of spectinamide 1599 towards the different phenotypic subpopulations. Our results indicate that spectinamide 1599 is more efficacious against log phase bacteria when compared to its activity against other phenotypically tolerant forms such as acid phase bacteria and hypoxic phase bacteria, a behavior similar to the established antituberculosis drug isoniazid.