Evidence for Expanding the Role of Streptomycin in the Management of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Journal:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, Volume: 64, Issue: 9
In 2019, the WHO tuberculosis (TB) treatment guidelines were updated to recommend only limited use of streptomycin, in favor of newer agents or amikacin as the preferred aminoglycoside for drug-resistant However, the emergence of resistance to newer drugs, such as bedaquiline, has prompted a reanalysis of antitubercular drugs in search of untapped potential. Using 211 clinical isolates of from South Africa, we performed phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) to aminoglycosides by both critical concentration and MIC determination in parallel with whole-genome sequencing to identify known genotypic resistance elements. Isolates with low-level streptomycin resistance mediated by were frequently misclassified with respect to streptomycin resistance when using the WHO-recommended critical concentration of 2 μg/ml. We identified 29 isolates from South Africa with low-level streptomycin resistance concomitant with high-level amikacin resistance, conferred by and 1400, respectively. Using a large global data set of genomes, we observed 95 examples of this corresponding resistance genotype ( 1400), including identification in 81/257 (31.5%) of extensively drug resistant (XDR) isolates. In a phylogenetic analysis, we observed repeated evolution of low-level streptomycin and high-level amikacin resistance in multiple countries. Our findings suggest that current critical concentration methods and the design of molecular diagnostics need to be revisited to provide more accurate assessments of streptomycin resistance for -containing isolates. For patients harboring isolates of with high-level amikacin resistance conferred by 1400, and for whom newer agents are not available, treatment with streptomycin may still prove useful, even in the face of low-level resistance conferred by .